What Are The Most Common Terms Used By Hackers?

Hacking is a world full of jargon and technical terms that is one of the challenges of writing and reading about hacking. We witness countless cases of data breaches, disclosure of information, financial fraud, and business failures on a daily basis.

Every skilled IT professional is well aware of the numerous attacks on their network and security of the computer. Whether you’re completely new to IT, or just feel rusty on your hacking terminology, a list of important words used in the hacking field follow;

  • API: Application Programming Interface. It is a collection of routines, protocols, and tools for developing software applications.
  • BIOS: Basic Input/Output System. Interfaces Hardware components with your operating systems.
  • Bug: An error, fault or flaw in any computer program or a hardware system.
  • CA: Certificate Authority. The public entity responsible for validating, issuing and revoking digital certificates.
  • CCTV: Closed Circuit Television. System where the signals not transferred publicly, but monitored.
  • DHCP: Protocol used to assign the Ip address dynamically.
  • DNS: Domain Name Service. Service to convert host IP to Human readable domain names.
  • DLL: Dynamic Link Library. A DLL is a library that contains code and data that can be used by more than one Microsoft Windows application at the same time.
  • DDoS: Distributed Denial of Service
  • DrDoS: Distributed Reflected Denial of Service Attack, uses a list of reflection servers.
  • Dark web: Encrypted online content that is not indexed by conventional search engines.
  • Deep web: Content you can’t find on a search engine.
  • Digital Certificate: An electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.
  • Encryption: A process of encoding a message into an cryptographic encoding that can’t be read without a key.
  • End-to-end encryption: A system of communication where only the communicating users can read the messages.
  • ECC: Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Encryption technique based on the curve to define public and private key.
  • FTP: File transfer protocol.
  • GPU: Graphic Processing Unit. Electric unit specialized for display functions.
  • HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol. network standard protocol used in communication between server and browser.
  • HTTPS: HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. Secured version of HTTP, all the data transferred is encrypted.
  • HDD: Hard disk drive. Mechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information
  • Hashing: Convert a range of key values into a range of indexes of an array.
  • IPsec: IP security.  IETF standard suite of protocols between 2 communication points across the IP network.
  • IP: Internet Protocol
  • ISP: Internet service provider
  • Jailbreak: Bypassing the restrictions Apple puts on the operating system.
  • LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. An Internet protocol works on TCP/IP, used to access information from directories.
  • MAC: Media Access Control. Unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller.
  • MD5: Message Digest. Algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value.
  • MITM: Man-in-the-middle attack. Attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communications between two parties.
  • NAT: Network address translation. Remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information.
  • NTFS: New Technology Files System. Windows Operating system uses for storing and retrieving files on a hard disk.
  • OS: Operating System
  • Penetration testing: Authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system.
  • Phishing: Social engineering attack.
  • RSA: Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman. An algorithm used in public key cryptography
  • RAT: Remote Access Trojan. Malware that allows hackers to monitor and control your computer or network.
  • Ransomware: Malicious software, or malware, designed to deny access to a computer system or data until a ransom is paid.
  • Rootkit: Collection of computer software, typically malicious.
  • S/MIME: Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
  • SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Communication guidelines that allow software to transmit an electronic mail over the internet.
  • Sniffing: Process of monitoring and capturing all the packets passing through a given network.
  • Spyware: Unwanted software that penetrate your computing device.
  • Spoofing: Person or program successfully identifies as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.
  • TLS: Transport Layer Security. Cryptographic protocol that provides end-to-end communications security over networks.
  • Tor: Free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication.
  • URL: Uniform Resource Locator
  • USB: Universal Serial Bus
  • VoIP: Voice over IP. Delivers of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol network.
  • VPN: Virtual Private Network
  • WAF: Web application firewall. Application firewall for HTTP applications
  • WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access.
  • Worm: A malicious program that originates on a single computer and searches for other computers connected through a local area network or Internet Connection.
  • Zero-day: A Zero-day vulnerability is a computer-software vulnerability that is unknown to, or unaddressed by, those who should be interested in mitigating the vulnerability.

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