Linux Commands

In this article we give you the most as often as possible used Linux Commands. Coming from the solace of a PC or Mac work area, the Linux Command Line looks not at all like what you regularly utilize.

For somebody to work in the Terminal they have to acquaint themselves with Linux commands. The Linux Command line is very helpful, fundamental to utilizing your Linux or VM and if done right, it furnishes you with more understanding and handy use than the Windows or Mac work area ever could.

System Linux Commands

Command Uses
uname Displays linux system information
cat /etc/redhat_release Displays which version of redhat installed
uptime Display how long the system has been running
hostname Display system host name
last reboot Display system reboot history
date Display the current date and time
cal Display the calendar of the current month
w Displays who is logged on
whoami Displays current user id
finger user Displays information about user
reboot Reboots the system
shutdown Shuts down the system

Hardware Linux Commands

Command Uses
dmesg Displays all the messages from Kernel ring buffer
cat /proc/cpuinfo Displays information about processes and CPUs of the system
cat /proc/meminfo Displays details on hardware memory
cat /proc/interrupts Lists the number of interrupts per CPU per I/O device
lshw Displays information on hardware configuration of the system
lsblk Displays block device related information of the machine
free -m Display used and free memory
dmidecode Displays hardware info from the BIOS
hdparm -i /dev/sda Displays info about disk sda
hdparm -tT /dev/sda Performs a read speed test on disk sda
badblocks -s /dev/sda Tests for unreadable blocks on disk sda
lspci -tv Display information on PCI buses devices

File Linux Commands

Command Uses
ls -al Displays all information about files/directories.
pwd Shows current directory path
mkdir directory-name Creates a directory
cp file1 file2 Copies linux files, here file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 Copies dir1 to dir2, creates dir2 if it doesn’t exist
mv file1 file2 Moves files from one place to another/renames file1 to file2
rm file-name Deletes file
rm -r directory-name Deletes directory recursively
rm -f file-name Forcefully removes file
rm -rf directory-name Forcefully removes directory recursively
ln -s /path/to/file-name link-name Creates a symbolic link to file-name
tail -f file Outputs the contents of file as it grows starting with the last 10 lines
gpg -c file Encrypts file
gpg file.gpg Decrypts file
cksum file View the checksum of the file
diff file1 file2 View the differences between contents of file1 and file2
ln -s link file Create a soft link named link to the file
sort Sorts files in alphabetical order
touch file Creates empty file
cat file Prints the file content in terminal
more file Display the contents of file
head file Display the first 10 lines of file
tail file Outputs the last 10 lines of file
uniq Compares adjacent lines in a file and removes/reports any duplicate lines
wc Counts number of words/lines
dir Lists the content of the directory
tee Command for chaining and redirection
tr Command for translating characters

File Permission & Network Linux Commands

Command Uses
chmod octal file-name Changes the permissions of file to octal
chmod 777 /data/test.c Sets rwx permission for owner , group and others
chmod 755 /data/test.c Sets rwx permission for owner and rx for group and others
chown owner-user file Changes owner of the file
chown owner-user:owner-group file-name Changes owner and group owner of the file
chown owner-user:owner-group directory Changes owner and group owner of the directory
chgrp group1 file Changes the group ownership of the file to group1
ifconfig -a Displays all network interface and set ip address
ifconfig eth0 Displays eth0 ethernet port ip address and details
ip addr show Display all network interfaces and ip addresses
ip address add dev eth0 78. ip address add dev eth0 : Sets ip address of eth0 device
ethtool eth0 Linux tool to show ethernet status
mii-tool eth0 Linux tool to show eth0 status
ping host Sends echo requests to the host to test ipv4 connection
whois domain Gets who is information for domain
dig domain Gets DNS nameserver information for domain
dig -x hos Reverse lookup host
host Lookup DNS ip address for the name
hostname -i Lookup local ip address
wget file Downloads file
netstat -tupl Lists all active listening ports
nslookup Resolves domain names to IP addresses

Package Installation & Search Linux Commands

Command Uses
rpm -i pkgname.rpm Installs rpm based package
rpm -e pkgname Removes package
make Install from source file
grep pattern files Searches for pattern in files
grep -r pattern dir Searches recursively for pattern in dir
locate file Finds all instances of file
find /home/tom -name ‘index*’ Finds file names that start with “index” inside /home/tom directory
find /home -size +10000k Finds files larger than 10000k in /home

Login, File Transfer & Disk Usage Commands

Command Uses
ssh [email protected] Securely connect to a host as user
ssh -p port $ [email protected] Connects to host using specific port
telnet host Connects to the system using telnet port
scp file.txt server2:/tmp Secure copy file.txt to remote host /tmp folder
scp [email protected]:/www/*.html /www/tmp Copies *.html files from remote host to current host /www/tmp folder
scp -r [email protected]:/www /www/tmp Copies all files and folders recursively from remote server to the current system /www/tmp folder
rsync -a /home/apps /backup/ Synchronizes source to destination
rsync -avz /home/apps $ [email protected]:/backup Synchronize files/directories between the local and remote system with compression enabled
df -h Displays free space on mounted filesystems
df -i Displays free inodes on mounted filesystems
fdisk -l Displays disks partitions sizes and types
du -ah Displays disk usage in human readable form
du -sh Displays total disk usage on the current directory
findmnt Displays target mount point for all filesystems
mount device-path mount-point Mounts a device to the device-path

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